Indledning  m  Portugal   m Spanien  mHolland mFrankrig m England  m USA  m Konklusion

  The City Canal  i London. Transportcenter for Englands handel med Indien.

Konklusion er under konstruktion, så der er endnu ikke skrevet en konklusion.
Konklusionen vil fokusere på historiens udviklingsårsager med fokus på spørgsmål nævnt under indledningen og koncept.

De teoretiske spørgsmål der søges besvaret er nævnt under koncept, og uddybet under teori.

For en oversigt over verdenshandelens historie, se indledningen


Videnskabsteori og determinationsteori

Law of Communicating Vessels of the World Economy.
(Korotayev 2015: 149).

Institutions and the path to the modern economy. (Greif 2006).

Om fremtiden:
Den teknologiske udviklings fremtidsperspektiver er beskrevet i en artikel i tidsskriftet Futuriblerne:
Postindustrielle teknologier og politisk forandring:
Fremtiden i en historisk kontekst
Kolonialismen som en ulighedsskabende proces og mulig fremtidig konvergens mellem rige og fattige lande.

Korotayev, A, Leonid Grinin and Jack Goldstone 2015: Great Divergence and Great Convergence. A Global Perspective. ...  

De bedst anbefalede referencer til en historisk oversigt over verdenshandelens historie på engelsk er:

Findlay, Ronald & Kevin O'Rourke 2007: Power and Plenty,
(se synopsis i den højre spalte).

Referencer på dansk
Niels Steensgaard, Ole Feldbæk og Kristof Glamann.

Referencer: Handelsimperiers opkomst, storhedstid og fald

Andrade, T. (2015). The Gunpowder Age: China, military innovation, and the rise of the West in world history. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 
Braudel, Fernand 1992: The Wheels of Commerce. Civilization and Capitalism: 15Th-18th Century -Volume 2.  
Brewer, J. 1989: The Sinews of Power: War, Money and the English State, 1688-1783. 
Christian, D. (2004). Maps of time: An introduction to big history. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.  
Cimoli, M., G.Dosi and J.E. Stiglitz 2008: The Future of Industrial Policies in the New
Millennium: Toward a Knowledge-Centered Development Agenda. Working paper. (PDF).  (Flere Joseph E. Stiglitz referencer). 
Cipolla, Carlo 1985: Guns, Sails, and Empires: Technological Innovation and the Early Phases of European Expansion, 1400- 1700. Sunflower University Press. 
De Long, J. B., & Shleifer, A. (1993). Princes and merchants: European city growth before the industrial revolution. Journal of Law and Economics, 36, 671–702.
De Soto, H. (2000). The mystery of capital: Why capitalism triumphs in the west and fails everywhere else. London: Black Swan. 
Faroqhi, Suraiya: The Ottoman Empire and the World Around it. (GB).
Findlay, Ronald & Kevin O'Rourke 2007: Power and Plenty: Trade, War, and the World Economy in the Second Millennium. Princeton. (PDF).
Goldstone, J. A. (2009). Why Europe? The rise of the West in world history: 1500–1850. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill 
Greif, A. (2006). Institutions and the path to the modern economy: Lessons from medieval trade.
Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. 
Hall, J. A. (1985). Powers and liberties: The causes and consequences of the rise of the West. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.  
Held, David et al. 1999: Global Transformations. (CW).
Korotayev, A, Leonid Grinin and Jack Goldstone 2015: Great Divergence and Great Convergence. A Global Perspective. ...  
Kuran, T. (2011). The long divergence: How Islamic law held back the Middle East. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.  
Lane, Frederic 1950: "Force and Enterprise in the Creation of Oceanic Commerce." In: The Tasks of Economic History. (Supplemental issue of the Journal of Economic history 10, pp. 19-31. (GB).
Leamer, Edward E. 2006: Review of Thomas L Friedman, The World is Flat. 
Lopez, Robert S. 1972: Commercial Revolution in the Middle Ages. Prentice Hall. (GB).
Mielants, E. H. (2007). The origins of capitalism and the rise of the West. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. 
Rasler, K. A., & Thompson, W. R. (1994). The great powers and global struggle, 1490–1990. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky. 

Sanderson, S. K. (1995). Social transformations. A general theory of historical development. Cambridge: Blackwell.

Sanderson, S. K. (1999). Macrosociology (4th ed.). New York, NY: Longman. 

Smith, M. R. & Marx, L. (1994) (eds.). Does Technology Drive History? The Dilemma of Technological Determinism. Cambridge, Massachussetts: The MIT Press. (GB).

Snooks, G. D. (1996). The dynamic society. Exploring the sources of global change. London: Routledge.

Snooks, G. D. (1997). The ephemeral civilization. Exploding the myth of social evolution. London: Routledge 

Steensgaard, Niels 1985: Världshandel och kulturkrockar 1500-1750.
Bra böckers världshistoria. Bd. 9. Höganäs.
Tracy, James 1990: The Rise of Merchant Empires. (GB)

Turchin, P. (2003). Historical dynamics: Why states rise and fall. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Turchin, P. (2005). War and peace and war: Life cycles of imperial nations. New York, NY: Pi Press.

Turchin, P., & Nefedov, S. (2009). Secular cycles. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 

Wallerstein, Immanuel 1974: The Modern World-System, vol. I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century. New York. (Se også tidsskriftet JWSR).
Wright, E.O. et al. 2005: Approaches to Class Analysis. (GB).
Se flere værker her (GB). 
Europe and the Sea
Olesen, Thorsten Borring (Projektdeltager)
Andersen, Casper (Projektdeltager)
Thelle, Mikkel (Projektdeltager)
Elvert, Jürgen, Univeersität zu Köln. (Projektleder, faglig). ...

International trade has shaped the modern world, yet until now no single book has been available for both economists and general readers that traces the history of the international economy from its earliest beginnings to the present day. Power and Plenty fills this gap, providing the first full account of world trade and development over the course of the last millennium.

Ronald Findlay and Kevin O'Rourke examine the successive waves of globalization and "deglobalization" that have occurred during the past thousand years, looking closely at the technological and political causes behind these long-term trends.

They show how the expansion and contraction of the world economy has been directly tied to the two-way interplay of trade and geopolitics, and how war and peace have been critical determinants of international trade over the very long run. The story they tell is sweeping in scope, one that links the emergence of the Western economies with economic and political developments throughout Eurasia centuries ago.

Findlay and O'Rourke demonstrate the close interrelationships of trade and warfare, the mutual interdependence of the world's different regions, and the crucial role these factors have played in explaining modern economic growth.

"Power and Plenty" is a must-read for anyone seeking to understand the origins of today's international economy, the forces that continue to shape it, and the economic and political challenges confronting policymakers in the twenty-first century.

Bohn, Michael 2019:

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